If you haven’t been living under a rock the past few years, you’ve probably noticed the massive popularity that vape pens have been gaining as an alternative to smoking herb. Since most are now designed to fit in your palm or pocket, the vape pen of today is a much more portable, discreet, and stylish way to vape than the vaporizers of the past.
The use of personal vaporizers as a means of enjoying or medicating with marijuana has become so commonplace that the word “vape” was recently added to the Oxford English Dictionary, and was even named as their word of the year in 2014.
These portable vaporizers are designed to heat the cannabis product to a temperature just below that of combustion, producing a tasty, smooth vapor to be inhaled instead of smoke.
Vaping is a popular alternative method of THC delivery among medical marijuana patients who may be unable to smoke because of their condition, and is gaining popularity in the recreational market because they provide a much less obvious way to use cannabis in public or at home. A small amount of vapor is less visible and has a more subtle odor than a cloud of, say, bong smoke.
Vape pens are also an easier tool with which to travel. If you do travel with your personal vaporizer, we recommend keeping it out of sight and protected with something like a slim and smell proof vape case. They help keep your vape pen safe and away from prying eyes — and noses.
Besides that, a vape case is a handy place to store additional vape pen accessories such as chargers, vape oil cartridges, or your wax oil concentrate container so you can bring your necessary vaporizer supplies on the go.
There are many different types of vape pens. Some are made to be used with dry herb, some with hash or vape wax, and some are made to be used with vape pen oil cartridges, which we will look at a little later on.
But first, let’s take a look at the history of the vaporizer and its evolution into the modern-day vape pen.
The Evolution of the Vape Pen
There is some controversy around when the vaporizer was first created, however sometime during the 1960s the first patented e-cigarette was designed as an electronic device to consume nicotine vapor.
Though it closely resembled the e-cigarettes of today, this ancestor of the modern vape pen never officially went on the market. It wouldn’t be until decades later that cigarette smokers, who wanted to quit smoking and learned about the potential harm reduction that inhaling vapor provided over smoking standard cigarettes, started adopting the practice.
Fast-forward to the late 90s, and we have the birth of what is perhaps the world’s most iconic and recognizable desktop vaporizer specifically designed for cannabis, the Volcano.
Apart from its classic stainless steel design, what made the Volcano kit unique was its patented detachable balloon chamber. The balloon chamber provided a way for the user to comfortably and safely consume the herb vapor, without coming into contact with the heating element, by using a fan to blow the vapor into a bag to be inhaled.
The Volcano is considered to be the first commercially successful modern vaporizer designed for consuming dry herb vapor, and dominated the vapor industry before the advent of portable vape pens. There were various attempted knockoffs of the Volcano’s design, however due to their inferior engineering they were never able to usurp the throne from the German-engineered product.
The modern day era of the vape pen as we know it began around the end of the 2000s, when the first compact vape pens began appearing.
The first modern vape pen was actually designed by a Chinese pharmacist and inventor and was intended for consuming nicotine vapor. Modern herb vapor pens have generally imitated the design and functionality of this first vape pen, with modifications so that they can be used in conjunction with either dry herb, wax, or oil cartridges.
Ten years ago the idea of “vaping” herb was a bit of a novelty, but today it has become a widely accepted practice for both medicinal and recreational marijuana users. With the countless varieties available on the market, there is a vape pen suited to everyone’s tastes and budget.
The Three Types of Vape Pen Explained
A dry herb pen vaporizer is generally the least expensive and simplest type of vape pen available.
This type of vape pen functions by heating up the dry cannabis flowers to the point that the active ingredients are released as a vapor without burning the herb (from 310-430 DegF). These are basically pocket-sized versions of the classic herb vaporizers.
A dab pen is the vape pen alternative to a dab rig, they are designed to work with wax and concentrates such as hash or shatter, rather than actual herb. Many people prefer wax vapor to herb vapor as it is a more concentrated and purer form of THC.
There are basically two types of dab pens, those that use a wick and coil combination that heats up the wax quickly, and those that use a coilless chamber that heats up and produces the vapor at a relatively slower rate.
The third type of vape pen out there is the kind designed to be used with oil cartridges that come pre-loaded with THC oils, also known as vape juice.
Like other vape pens, these heat up the oil with a tiny heater, powered by a rechargeable lithium ion battery, to the point that it becomes vapor ready to inhale. The main difference in the components of this type of vape pen is that instead of having a refillable chamber, the cartridges are replaced once the cannabis oils are used up.
In addition to the three types of vape pen mentioned above, there are some vape pens that are designed to function with more than one variety of cannabis product. For instance the Pax 3 gives the user the ability to vape both dry herb and concentrates right at their fingertips.
Combo vapes like the Pax 3 are a great option for people who enjoy switching between cannabis flowers and wax. The removable concentrate inserts are easy to take in and out depending on what your session calls for, allowing for a versatile vaping experience.
Marijuana Oil Cartridges for Vaporizer Pens Analyzed
The vape pens used with dry herb and concentrates like hash or wax require a person to load the THC product into the vape pen’s heating chamber. This means that the person using the vaporizer pen knows exactly what is being loaded into it.
The vape pens designed to be used with oil cartridges are a little bit trickier because the vape juice cartridges are most often purchased pre-filled with the marijuana concentrate liquid.
With the recent discovery that many medical marijuana products in California were improperly labeled with incorrect lab test results, the good people at O’Shaughnessy’s decided to investigate some of the most widely purchased vape pen oil cartridges on the market. They used lab test results from SC Labs in Santa Cruz, CA to provide an analyzed, side-by-side comparison of 19 different vaporizer pen oil cartridges.
The graph below shows the lab test results for the THC content in each of the 19 oil cartridges. They are ranked in order of THC content with the highest tested product at the top. The calculations were provided by O’Shaughnessy’s:
The vaporizer cartridges that tested highest for THC content were Pure Cure (71%) and Absolute Xtracts(70%). Some vapor pen oil cartridges from the line created by Absolute Xtracts are even strain specific. None of the other oil cartridge brands tested in this sample named which strain of cannabis was used to make the oil.
Just as the THC content in each cannabis oil cartridge is different, so are the mixing agents used. Some are cut with additives like propylene glycol or vegetable glycerin, and some are not. The Pure Cure and Absolute Xtracts brand vape pen cartridge test results show that these products do not contain any type of additive. The rest of the cartridges tested in this sample did test as having been cut with some type of additive.
The graph below uses the lab tested percent of THC and the amount of liquid in each vape pen cartridge to determine how many milligrams of THC are in each concentrate cartridge. This information can be used to calculate the average price per milligram of THC, depending on how much the cartridge costs at each retailer. The calculations were provided by O’Shaughnessy’s, and the “size” is measured in milligrams:
To determine your cost per milligram of THC, divide the price you pay for the concentrate cartridge by the milligram of THC (provided in the right column of the graph above).
Price paid for oil cartridge ÷ MG of THC = cost per milligram of THC
Based on O’Shaughnessy’s calculations, Absolute Extracts, Pure Cure, and Eureka oil cartridges provide users the best value of the 19 concentrate cartridges that were analyzed in this particular sample.
Whether you’ve been vaping for years and are an old pro, or you’re new to the concept and just looking to get your foot in the door with your first vape pen, it’s important to stay up to date with the latest data and trends in this relatively new and rapidly evolving area of the legal bud industry. Keeping informed will ensure that you’re getting the most out of your money and always know what you are putting in your vape pen, so that you can enjoy vaping to its full potential!
Originally Published: December 26th, 2014.
Cannabis laws are being reformed in many states throughout America, and similar changes are being made all over the world as people are learning more about the benefits that can be obtained from this plant with the not-so-positive reputation. While the one-and-only Amsterdam, Netherlands has been known as the place for marijuana-friendly tourists to vacation, some people would prefer to escape to a warmer, perhaps even tropical, destination. Now that laws are being reformed, there are many warm-climate destinations joining the realm of marijuana tourism.
In many places, as long as users are discreet, countries and local authorities may be nonchalant about marijuana use. Some countries are even beginning to encourage the reputation as a marijuana-friendly tourist destination because of the business and revenue it generates.
There are several amazing places that every marijuana enthusiast must visit at some point. Below are 5 of the warm-weather examples. The places on this list were evaluated by weather, activities offered, beauty, acceptance, and laws.
The United States purchased the 3 Virgin Island territories in the Caribbean, St. Thomas, St. John and St. Croix, from Denmark almost 100 years ago. The three islands combined offer something for everyone, and they are all a short boat or plane ride from one another. St. Thomas has fun, sun, sand, a hot nightlife, and is an ideal spot for those who love to shop. St. John is a dream for the nature tourist, with stunning hiking trails, and very little of the island being inhabited. St. Croix is a scuba diver’s paradise, boasting some of the best dive sites in the world.
Although the islands share one local body of government, they are still technically regulated by the United States federal government, and therefore have operated under the same marijuana laws. However, perhaps inspired by the policy reform that swept the most recent U.S. election, the USVI senate recently voted to decriminalize marijuana possession with a quiet passing of a marijuana decriminalization bill. Now, an adult found in possession of up to 1 ounce of cannabis may be ticketed and fined up to $200 with no jail time. Law enforcement officers will also have the right to choose whether to confiscate the plant at that time.
photo credit: West End WS
This southeast Asian nation, just north of the equator, borders Vietnam, Thailand and Laos, and offers many activities to entice every type of traveler. Tourists can explore ancient temples, trek to hidden mountain waterfalls, scuba dive, shop, or even relax on the beach.
Although cannabis is technically illegal in Cambodia, it is one of the country’s largest export crops, and locals use it regularly as medicine and cooking. It is also reported to be commonly smoked in the open. Many tourists on Trip Advisor report Happy Herb Pizza places as having pies on the menu that use cannabis as a topping. The same chain pizza restaurant reportedly sells joints. Thanks to Cambodia, tropical vacations in Asia can be added to the list of marijuana-friendly vacation destinations.
photo credit: Phnom Penh Happy Pizza
The tropical island country of Jamaica hosts thousands of people each year. Tourists travel from all over the world to bask in the tropical sun on the island’s beautiful beaches, swim in bioluminescent bays, and experience rastafarian culture. Although cannabis has been very illegal in Jamaica, tourists have never had difficulty finding it. Some tourists have even arranged to be taken on pot-sampling tours.
Now that the Jamaican government is officially decriminalizing marijuana possession, and even considering establishing retail sales of the plant, tourists and locals alike no longer have to fear being arrested for partaking. This applies to the entire island.
photo credit: Island Buzz Jamaica
Australia is a large country that offers different climates depending on which part you travel to. The north part of the country tends to have a tropical climate, while the south end of the island nation is home to a more sub-tropical, temperate climate. The Northern Territory is known for beautiful landscapes of red desert, vast flood-planes, cavernous gorges, and aboriginal villages. South Australia boats beautiful beaches, wine regions, and the outback. Just as the weather differs depending on which state you are in, so do the marijuana laws. In South Australia, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory, possession of up to 100 grams of cannabis is decriminalized and punishable by a civil fine.
Even in the Australian states where marijuana possession is illegal, like New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria and the island region of Tasmania, it is unlikely that a person will be arrested for having only a personal amount because law enforcement in Australia make efforts to divert users into educational classes rather than jails. Plus, medical marijuana is expected to be legalized in Victoria soon, and many other Australian states, including the territory island of Tasmania, are currently organizing efforts to push for marijuana policy reform. In the not-so-distant future, the entire country of Australia may be a marijuana friendly tourist destination.
photo credit: Wayn Quilliam Photography
Beach destinations at the far south tip of Mexico are already popular tourist vacation destinations, but the huge country of Mexico has even more to offer than sun and sand. Mexico is home to many different activities to meet the needs of almost any traveler.
In Mexico, travelers may experience ancient Mayan ruins, world-class museums, hiking trails, caves and cenotes, adventure tours, and some of the best street food in the world. Marijuana tourists can experience all of this while, legally, possessing a small amount of cannabis for personal use. As of 2009, personal possession of up to 5 grams of cannabis is decriminalized throughout the country of Mexico. Many travelers have warned, however, that being caught with more than 5 grams can turn into a very ugly legal situation, so be sure to possess only up to the lawful limit.
photo credit: Trekexchange
Even the most seasoned growers tend to avoid certain landrace strains because of long flowering times, difficult growing conditions, or unique bud structures that require tons of TLC. “Landrace” simply means a cannabis strain that is generally only grown in one geographic area without hybridizing its genetics with other strains. These strains are so specialized that they often require more attention, time, and care than hybrids.
With that said, let’s take a look at a handful of the most notoriously difficult to grow cannabis strains:
A hard-to-find pure sativa heirloom strain named after the famous Harvard professor and cannabis advocate Dr. Grinspoon, this headstrong cerebral flower is an ideal choice for intellectuals and creative thinkers alike. These sparse berry-like buds grow on thin stems in unusually airy gaps which has the effect of producing lower yields.
Preferring to be grown indoors with a long 13-14 weeks of patient flowering, Dr. Grinspoon needs a good amount of height management and stem support late in the flowering cycle.
Here in Denver we’re seeing a resurgence of Headband hybrids like my personal favorite, Blueberry Headband. However, pure Headband is notoriously difficult to grow due to its smallish bud structure. Learning what this plant likes is the key to getting consistent yields that produce the high amounts of THC (25%+) that this strain is known for.
When I hear some of the old-timers talk about how they used to smoke “Thai sticks” back in the day, I used to roll my eyes and think they had no idea what good weed today would be like. After doing my research, I discovered that the original Thai heritage was as good as they come, even by today’s standards.
Notoriously difficult to find and even harder to grow outside of Thailand, Thai strains prefer hot, humid outdoor environments where they can grow tall. Growers will need high quality organic soil and must pay careful attention to pruning, topping, and training their plants over the lengthy flowering period- up to 14 weeks for the Chocolate Thai variant.
Named after cannabis activist Jack Herer, this classic strain is a potent mix of Northern Lights #5 and Shiva Skunk. With a flowering time of 8-9 weeks for only a low to moderate yield, this strain is somewhat difficult to grow outside of hydroponic systems due to how bushy and massive these plants can get.
If growing indoors, be sure to have plenty of space between your plants and don’t forget about supporting the branches as the buds develop to prevent snapping.
A pure sativa hailing from the Salima region of Malawi in Africa, Malawi and Malawi Gold are extremely rare and have perhaps the longest flowering time in the world at up to 120 days. Fabled to produce gigantic resin-soaked colas up to two feet long, this strain is certainly worth the effort.
Unless you live in an African climate, this bud is arduous to grow outside of its native lands. You’ll need a temperature and humidity controlled greenhouse with lots of space for this tropical beauty if you wish to grow indoors.
Cannabis and the 4th of July are a great combination. Lighting up on our nation’s Independence Day is certainly symbolic, but it’s also great when combined with lounging, enjoying the outdoors, hanging out with friends or just watching some fireworks.
Adding cannabis to this mix can be done with ease in states that have legalized recreational marijuana. This list takes into account not only if cannabis is legal in the area, but how entrenched cannabis is in the local scene. Nevada recently legalized cannabis, and enjoying it in that state is legal, but dispensaries are thin on the ground and local law enforcement is still playing catch-up with the new legislation. For folks hoping to fly into Las Vegas and expect the cannabis scene to be as entrenched as San Francisco’s, they should wait a while before considering it a canna-friendly destination.
Colorado, California, Oregon, and Washington have adjusted to new cannabis laws for enough time that it has become normalized in those states. California is still under medical-only cannabis laws until January 1st, 2018, but its relaxed program means many Californians still can get a medical recommendation with ease. Maine is also an option for those who can’t travel too far from the east coast, but recreational sales won’t begin until next year. In all of these places, cannabis is still illegal on federal lands, like parks and campgrounds, so plan your holiday accordingly.
Why consider it for the 4th: an escape from the big city with enough waterfront views for everyone.
This destination is located the farthest north out of the rest of our recommendations, and it’s a great place to escape the summer heat, if only a little. Ferries are a part of life in the area, and quick rides can get you to the heart of the city or in the middle of nature within a short amount of time. Bellevue hosts one of the area’s best fireworks displays, and the Bellevue Four on the 4th Dog Jog is a local favorite for dog owners.
Dispensaries: The Novel Tree, Greenside, Green Theory, BelMar
Why consider it for the 4th: Small town vibe in a very cannabis-friendly state.
Boulder comes out of hibernation for summer, and the city really embraces Independence Day with huge fireworks displays, family-friendly activities, and plenty of cannabis. As a Colorado town, it’s familiar with canna-tourists. If you can plan ahead, reserve tickets for the local Budz, Sudz, Grow & Dispensary tour. The state is also home to canna-friendly accommodations, so it’s the perfect destination for an all-cannabis holiday.
Dispensaries: The Station, Village Green Society, Freshly Baked Dispensary
Why consider it for the 4th: A destination for outdoor activities with family. And cannabis.
Central Oregon is a quick flight from Portland. Fly into RDM on major carriers and Bend is a 20-minute drive from the sleepy airport. This former mill town is home to some of the best cannabis in the state, and knowing your cannabis hasn’t traveled far means you’re getting some of the freshest herb available. Downtown Bend has a family-friendly 4th of July celebration with food and fireworks, but hit up the town’s cannabis tours after you’ve done all the hiking, biking, fishing and rafting you can handle.
Dispensaries: Oregrown, Cannabend, Bloom Well
Los Angeles, CA
Why consider it for the 4th: Instagram-worthy events for extroverts.
One of the best-kept secrets about LA is the fact that people tend to leave the city for major holidays, but Independence Day seems to be the exception, with thousands of SoCal residents head to the beach or to the Rose Bowl for fireworks. Venice Beach is home to the 4th of July Mr. & Mrs. Venice Beach competition, and is an event that makes a trip to Venice even more memorable. The celebrations at the Hollywood Bowl really do the venue justice, which allows you to bring a picnic and your own booze.
Dispensaries: La Brea Collective, Cannabal City Collective, Exhale Med Center
Why consider it for the 4th: The best for recreational cannabis
Denver packs in a lot of activities for the days surrounding the 4th of July. Combining it with its tourist-friendly cannabis market means you can enjoy Independence Day in a city where cannabis has been normalized moreso than any other destination in the United States. This year, Denver Comic con’s last day falls on July 2nd and the annual Cherry Creek Arts Festival ends on July 3rd, so you can hit up both events before celebrating the 4th at Elitch Gardens.
Dispensaries: Denver Kush Club, The Giving Tree of Denver, Native Roots Apothecary, Dank Colorado
Why consider it for the 4th: A region dedicated to the best food, drink, and cannabis
Home to this year’s Norcal Cannabis Cup and Emerald Cup, Sonoma has embraced the cannabis trade alongside their wine and food cultures. A quick drive from nearby San Francisco means Norcal residents can pick up their favorite cannabis products on the way to enjoying their vacation, although there are some great dispensaries in the region. Head to Healdsburg for their small-town 4th of July activities, or escape to the beach to cool off.
Dispensaries: Sonoma Patient Group, Redwood Herbal Alliance, Mercy Wellness of Cotati, Alternatives Health Collective
In recent years, medical marijuana has made a spectacularly controversial entrance into our daily narrative. U.S. states are challenging a plethora of outdated laws concerning the substance’s medicinal use, and the results have sparked a national debate on the legalization of recreational cannabis use, sale, and regulation. There are some states, however, that still treat marijuana like cocaine, heroin, and other drugs, despite research dispelling common misconceptions about the use of cannabis and its application to modern medicine. Here are 5 of the worst states to be caught using or possessing marijuana:
Getting caught with any amount of marijuana in Arizona will result in a felony charge, an almost impossibly hardened sentence in the opinions of many on both sides of the law. Though Arizona legalized the medical use of marijuana in 2010, recreational use is widely admonished and carries life-changing ramifications. Under the state’s laws, possession of less than two pounds will result in a Class 6 felony charge, over $100,000 in fines, and at least six months in jail; regardless of how little one possesses, this is the lowest sentence, and possession with intent to sell or cultivation both spell life behind bars. Even with medical marijuana legalized, medical users are still fighting for their right to have access to (and use) this treatment, and places like universities are being threatened with loss of federal funding if marijuana is permitted on-campus.
Another medically legal state (with updates to the law being added as recently as 2016), Florida has stiff penalties for recreational users. Any amount under 20 grams will garner up to a year in jail, a fine, and is tagged as a first-degree misdemeanor; those with more than 20 grams face up to five years. Charges in this state may not be as serious as they are in others, but the laws surrounding cannabis are more specialized and include harsher penalties for synthetic marijuana, as well as “marijuana addiction treatment” for those incarcerated. Consequently, an individual convicted in this state may have their driver’s license revoked, even if the offense occurred without a vehicle present or involved. Florida state laws on marijuana use are constantly changing, and lawmakers are often pushing for harsher sentences.
With possession of just 2 ounces being identified as a Class 1 misdemeanor under South Dakota law, “no person may knowingly possess marijuana” in any amount, and for no reason (medicinal or otherwise). Of the 13 states that have decriminalized recreational use of marijuana and the 46 with medical marijuana laws in place, South Dakota is one of the few left in total defiance. Even users from other states will be charged in the same way as anyone in possession of marijuana in this state, receiving penalties like a 90-day suspension of a person’s license if the substance is found in their vehicle. One report from Pierre, North Dakota reveals a cannabis user being forcibly catheterized after refusing to provide a urine sample to police, and recounts the experience as “degrading” and a violation of his rights.
Another recent addition to the list of states that allow medical cannabis use, Wisconsin’s laws for possession are relatively harsh; just a small amount is considered a Class 1 felony and will result in jail time and a hefty fine. Though many cities in Wisconsin are battling against state law (and 9 of the 10 major cities in the state have decriminalized possession of small amounts), some municipalities adhere strictly to state-appointed guidelines, which levy substantial charges against users. Medical marijuana users in the state are under no distinct advantage, as the statute renders extremely specific. Even the state’s Native American tribes are taking a stand against these strict laws, with the Menominee tribe voting to legalize both types of use on their reservations in 2015.
This state has staunchly resisted the uprising of medical marijuana for years, and outlaws all uses and forms of cannabis to anyone, even those legal in other states. An individual convicted of possessing less than 30 grams will serve jail time and be charged with a Class A misdemeanor, while anything over 30 grams will be tagged as a Class D felony, leaving Indiana with the award for the harshest laws against cannabis users. Those seeking respite in legal states will be prosecuted as well, since Indiana law states that a person caught with trace amounts of marijuana in their systems while driving will be subject to the same laws that apply to possession, even if no actual marijuana is present. In addition to these worrying statutes, research shows that African-Americans are three times as likely to be targeted and arrested for cannabis use.
Father’s Day is here and what better way to say “thanks for keeping me alive all these years” than by giving your dad (or fatherly husband) a gift that will really set his day alight. After all, dads only get one day a year to be recognized for all they do, so get him something he’ll actually use.
Straight out of the depths of the internet, here are some “green” gift ideas for the man that has absolutely everything.
Canna-breakfast in bed
This one applies to the appreciative wives out there; that is, unless you want to walk in on your father sawing logs with god-knows-what hanging outside of the sheets. This year, instead of the uninspired trip to Denny’s with the fam, try your hand at cookin’ up some cannabis-infused pancakes and toast.
If you really want to make things interesting, don’t bother telling him about the “green eggs and ham” you just served up, then kick back and watch the show unfold.
Coming in at the $150 and up price range, this one makes a fantastic group gift. If you and your siblings are like me and mine, you always wait until a few days before Father’s Day before asking: “what did you get Dad?” and “wanna split it?”.
This year, get the big guy something classy as hell- the Cannador humidor. This fancy stash box keeps your top shelf flowers at a level 65% humidity and eliminates the need for mowing through all your weed just so it doesn’t dry out.
What better way to greet the morning than with a steaming cup of Joe and getting baked? Millennia ago, it’s rumored that people had to use separate devices for coffee and weed; I know, right? What cavemen!
Luckily, today we have the technology to combine both coffee mug and weed pipe into one amazing invention! Known as the Pipemug, this incredibly practical device combines all the coffee drinking and cannabis smoking your dad can handle first thing in the morning.
Did someone say multi-tool on a lighter? You know as well as I do that if it has knives, flames, and something called “Nut Grabber” wrenches that will grab any size nut or bolt that fits, it might as well say “Dad” on it already.
Made from hardened 400 series stainless steel, this cool tool slides effortlessly onto any standard lighter. Whether he likes to fish, fix cars, snowboard or takes things apart that he probably shouldn’t have, LighterBro Pro has got his back.
Packed with all kinds of smoking essentials and gear, this monthly subscription service brings all the best swag to dad’s doorstep, hand-picked by expert cannaficionados. From tee-shirts to books and everything in between, this is the gift that keeps on giving the whole year ‘round.
After all, picking out the perfect Father’s Day present doesn’t have to be hard. Get him one of these gift ideas and you’re sure to be Dad’s favorite hellion once again.