Study Shows THC Reverses Age Related Cognitive Decline

Study Shows THC Reverses Age Related Cognitive Decline

Cannabis researchers have known for a long time that the endocannabinoid system regulates many of the processes involved with the aging process, and that cannabinoids can protect the brain and other organs from age related damage. But there has never been a study done showing outright that marijuana can specifically reverse the effects of aging on the brain after it has taken place.

Until now that is.

In a ground-breaking first of its kind study just published in the academic journal “Nature”, an international team of scientists prove conclusively that Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive cannabinoid in cannabis, is able to not only enhance the brain activity of elderly mice but to improve the density of key brain areas, including the hippocampus. In a dramatic turning back of time, these mice then clearly demonstrate an improvement in problem solving and other cognitive functions that normally decline with age.

Remarkably, a single low dose of THC was found to have “lasting effects on learning and memory performance” in the mice tested, regardless of age. Even more miraculously, the THC extract changed the underlying gene expression of 12 month old mice to be identical to that of a 2 month old mouse, meaning that beyond neurological function and even physical structure this powerful natural compound was able to induce “epigenetic” changes in the brain that restore it to its former youthful glory.

For anyone not well versed in evolutionary theory, epigenetics is a fast growing field of discoveries that both challenges and completes Darwin’s theories of natural selection (where fixed genes and traits are passed down through heredity) by showing that gene expression, and therefore actual physical changes (everything from body type to behavior to disease), can be influenced by environmental factors and happen within a single lifetime. In other words, in the nature vs. nurture debate, epigenetics has come forward to show just how powerfully nurturing can override the genetic programming that nature has originally provided.

Yes, we evolve within our lifetime. And now we know that cannabis can advance that evolution.

“These results demonstrate that the cognitive improvements in THC-treated mature mice were associated with a change in gene profiles” the study states, after explaining that the marijuana compound actually upregulated gene transcripts that are known to not only improve cognitive function and protect against age related illnesses like Alzheimer’s Disease but even extend lifespan.

In a time when anti-aging medicine has become a multi-billion dollar industry, despite the risks involved with treatments like Human Growth Hormone and Stem Cell therapy, this new study is completely game-changing. Scientists have been trying to develop epigenetic treatments for age related cognitive impairments for some time but have not been able to come up with anything that does not have serious side effects. Now we know that cannabis can once again do what Big Pharma simply can only dream of.

A natural and abundant plant that has already been proven to have incredible medicinal power across a wide range of therapeutic applications and presents no toxic danger, cannabis is nothing short of a miracle medicine that is here to help us evolve to a healthier and happier future. Playing an important role in human development since the beginning of time, cannabis continues to be a co-evolutionary partner whose relationship to us just gets more and more beautiful as time goes by.

Landrace Strains: The Beginning of Cannabis

Landrace Strains: The Beginning of Cannabis

Participants in the cannabis culture may be familiar with a few of the rare varieties of the plant that are categorized as landrace strains, including Colombian Gold, Durban Poison, Northern Lights, and Afghan Kush. “Landrace” simply refers to the small number of surviving strains of cannabis that evolved naturally in the geographic region in which they were initially discovered (by 20th century humans, that is). Some experts believe that about 100 of these rare strains exist today.

Landrace strains hail from global regions such as Jamaica, Afghanistan, India, Africa, Mexico, Pakistan, and Central America. They are believed to have originated in the Hindu Kush region of Pakistan and Afghanistan. This is one reason that so many strain names incorporate the term “Kush,” such as the always-popular OG Kush (the “OG” means “Ocean Grown,” denoting West Coast breeding and cultivation).

Many cultivators believe that the best examples of cannabis sativa are grown in a region as close to the equator as possible and at a relatively high elevation. Thus, mountainous areas in Central America, the Middle East, Africa, and Indonesia are almost perfectly suited to the cultivation of high-quality cannabis. This is no coincidence; landrace strains hail from most of these regions. Technically, landrace strains are those that have stabilized over time as a result of natural inbreeding.

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Other definitions of landrace cannabis include any that hasn’t purposefully been bred or otherwise manipulated by humans. Such indigenous varieties of marijuana, because they have evolved within a particular region, are very precisely acclimated to their local climates — and may offer unique medicinal qualities that are specifically tuned to the native humans of that region. Wrote Rick Pfrommer, Director of Education at Harborside Health Center, one of the nation’s largest dispensaries:

“It’s not that [landrace strains are] necessarily better, [they’re] just different, and perhaps more effective for some patients’ specific conditions or needs.”

Source of All Modern Strains

Many readers aren’t interested in a history lesson, however. How are landrace strains related to modern varieties and hybrids? Put simply, landraces are the origin of all modern cannabis strains. They are the genesis of cannabis in society and reflect its state of development, or evolution, before modern humans began breeding and cultivating the herb for medicine, lifestyle enhancement, and profit.

Cannabis breeders long ago took original landrace strains and bred, or crossed, them in an effort to create new strains possessing the best characteristics of both parents (and, just as with dogs or humans, hopefully few of their bad traits). Some strains feature shorter growing periods or are more resistant to pests or mold, making them the desire of cultivators. Others, especially sativa varieties, may be more difficult to grow and feature relatively long flowering cycles, but can also deliver unique medicinal and psychoactive effects that are sought by many patients and cannabis consumers.

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For all practical purposes, it must be assumed that many landrace strains, in their original, pure form, have been lost forever. Endless crosses over several decades in most areas of the world, especially North America, the United Kingdom, and Europe, have resulted in diluted genetics. The sad reality is that many “pure” breeds of cannabis are often mislabeled. Many purported examples of seeds, harvested cannabis flowers, or concentrates from pure landrace strains are inevitably not. Instead, they are sometimes the descendents of multiple landraces that have been bred (either purposefully or accidentally), going back an unknown number of generations — and with possibly very different characteristics. Also, genetic mutations easily emerge, especially under different growing conditions, which can cause great stress to mature plants.

For decades, strains have been bred to bring out their potency, especially in terms of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, the cannabinoid in the plant that delivers psychoactive effects and is largely responsible for its euphoria — but also is a powerful medicine for dozens of diseases. However, researchers and medical professionals have identified something called the entourage effect that supports the concept of whole flower medicine by observing that cannabinoids and terpenes interact synergistically, in a delicate and nuanced supplementation of the human body’s endocannabinoid system.

The good news is that a significant portion of the cannabis breeding community has been focused on creating strains that deliver the greatest medicinal value. Many modern varieties of cannabis are a far cry from the original strains from which they are descended. Just as a modern human living in Kentucky might be a descendant of American founding father Benjamin Franklin while, in most respects, the two humans are very different, cannabis strain crosses often, in reality, feature a morphology (shape and size), growing characteristics, and high type that is very different from their landrace ancestors. Sometimes, crosses and hybrids are more appropriate and therapeutic than landrace strains for particular diseases or ailments.

Understanding Phenotypes and Heirlooms

When seeds from landrace strains are cultivated outside the zone in which they evolved, they produce what geneticists and breeders label phenotypes. Phenotypes are transmogrifications of the plant that result in similar, but different characteristics. This includes morphology, development (such as the length of flowering cycles), and biochemical properties (potency and cannabinoid/terpene profiles). Phenotypes that are direct descendents of landrace strains, with no breeding or crossbreeding, are known as heirlooms.

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In landrace strains grown outside their area of origin, a change occurs in the cannabinoid and terpene profiles of the resinous trichomes found on the female flowers of these heirloom varieties. Because they necessarily receive different light cycles, sometimes artificial light instead of natural, and different soil (not to mention dramatic variances in water, humidity, and nutrition), these strains must modify and adapt to their new environments. This changes the inherent characteristics of these strains, including their medical efficacy and high type.

Because they have evolved over hundreds of thousands or even millions of years, landrace strains are considered to be more “balanced,” with terpene and cannabinoid profiles that are in harmony with the needs of the plant, its environment, and — in theory — the humans and animals living in the region that consumed it. (All mammals have an endocannabinoid system and, therefore, are affected by cannabis in a manner similar to humans.)

Origin of American Cultivation Culture

The cannabis cultivation cultures in Northern California and Hawaii have their genesis in heirloom strains introduced to the United States during the 1960s, ’70s, and ’80s. The climate in Northern California sometimes closely approximates that of parts of Afghanistan and the Hindu Kush mountains. Because the central West Coast of the United States is roughly similar in the weather it receives, landrace strains brought back from some regions of Indonesia and the Middle East have traditionally thrived in Northern California. With them, the cannabis culture in the United States has also thrived. Both Hawaii and the entire West Coast have become synonymous with high-quality outdoor grown cannabis — just as Columbia is known for producing some of the world’s best coffee beans.

Patients and lifestyle consumers wishing to expand their cannabis horizons should seek out landrace and heirloom strains in an effort to learn more about the roots of cannabis in not only North America, but throughout the world. Cultivators wanting a change of pace should strive to obtain seeds and clones (cuttings) from heirloom strains in an effort to keep them alive for current and future generations and give patients (and medical professionals, including researchers) additional options for cannabis medicine.

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Classic Landrace Strains

In the past, landrace strains that happened to be sativas were eschewed by gardeners for indicas and crosses that featured shorter flowering periods. This was simply because these varieties were more profitable for commercial cultivators. However, the recent wave of recreational and medical cannabis laws at the state level in the U.S. has spawned markets for special strains, many of which are landrace sativas (such as Durban Poison).

Examples of popular and classic landrace strains include the following:

  • Afghan Kush: A pure indica strain purported to have originated in the Hindu Kush Mountains between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
  • G13: A landrace from Afghanistan that typically leans toward indica. However, two phenotypes of this strain exist, the second of which is a sativa.
  • Durban Poison: An unusually potent sativa from the South African port city of Durban. Click here to read an expert review of this strain.
  • Acapulco Gold: The infamous landrace sativa that hails from the Acapulco region of Southwest Mexico and typically features high levels of THC.
  • Northern Lights: A legendary indica, this highly inbred Afghani is purported to hail from British Columbia.
  • Rooibaard: A sativa from the coastal area of the Transkei region of South Africa.
  • Colombian Gold: The fabled cannabis hybrid that is sometimes a bit sativa-dom that originates in the Santa Marta mountains of Colombia in Central America.
  • Hawaiian: A sativa-dom hybrid from the islands of Hawaii.
  • Malawi Gold: A pure sativa is from the Salima region of Malawi in Southeast Africa.
  • Thai: A sativa from, as its name implies, Thailand. Hybrids derived from Thai include Fruity Thai and Juicy Fruit Thai.
  • Panama Red: This sativa from Panama became popular in the late 1960s, during the hippy psychedelic era.
  • Punto Rojo: A sativa from Columbia that is considered by some to be even better than Colombian Gold.

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