Landrace Strains: The Beginning of Cannabis

Landrace Strains: The Beginning of Cannabis

Participants in the cannabis culture may be familiar with a few of the rare varieties of the plant that are categorized as landrace strains, including Colombian Gold, Durban Poison, Northern Lights, and Afghan Kush. “Landrace” simply refers to the small number of surviving strains of cannabis that evolved naturally in the geographic region in which they were initially discovered (by 20th century humans, that is). Some experts believe that about 100 of these rare strains exist today.

Landrace strains hail from global regions such as Jamaica, Afghanistan, India, Africa, Mexico, Pakistan, and Central America. They are believed to have originated in the Hindu Kush region of Pakistan and Afghanistan. This is one reason that so many strain names incorporate the term “Kush,” such as the always-popular OG Kush (the “OG” means “Ocean Grown,” denoting West Coast breeding and cultivation).

Many cultivators believe that the best examples of cannabis sativa are grown in a region as close to the equator as possible and at a relatively high elevation. Thus, mountainous areas in Central America, the Middle East, Africa, and Indonesia are almost perfectly suited to the cultivation of high-quality cannabis. This is no coincidence; landrace strains hail from most of these regions. Technically, landrace strains are those that have stabilized over time as a result of natural inbreeding.


Other definitions of landrace cannabis include any that hasn’t purposefully been bred or otherwise manipulated by humans. Such indigenous varieties of marijuana, because they have evolved within a particular region, are very precisely acclimated to their local climates — and may offer unique medicinal qualities that are specifically tuned to the native humans of that region. Wrote Rick Pfrommer, Director of Education at Harborside Health Center, one of the nation’s largest dispensaries:

“It’s not that [landrace strains are] necessarily better, [they’re] just different, and perhaps more effective for some patients’ specific conditions or needs.”

Source of All Modern Strains

Many readers aren’t interested in a history lesson, however. How are landrace strains related to modern varieties and hybrids? Put simply, landraces are the origin of all modern cannabis strains. They are the genesis of cannabis in society and reflect its state of development, or evolution, before modern humans began breeding and cultivating the herb for medicine, lifestyle enhancement, and profit.

Cannabis breeders long ago took original landrace strains and bred, or crossed, them in an effort to create new strains possessing the best characteristics of both parents (and, just as with dogs or humans, hopefully few of their bad traits). Some strains feature shorter growing periods or are more resistant to pests or mold, making them the desire of cultivators. Others, especially sativa varieties, may be more difficult to grow and feature relatively long flowering cycles, but can also deliver unique medicinal and psychoactive effects that are sought by many patients and cannabis consumers.


For all practical purposes, it must be assumed that many landrace strains, in their original, pure form, have been lost forever. Endless crosses over several decades in most areas of the world, especially North America, the United Kingdom, and Europe, have resulted in diluted genetics. The sad reality is that many “pure” breeds of cannabis are often mislabeled. Many purported examples of seeds, harvested cannabis flowers, or concentrates from pure landrace strains are inevitably not. Instead, they are sometimes the descendents of multiple landraces that have been bred (either purposefully or accidentally), going back an unknown number of generations — and with possibly very different characteristics. Also, genetic mutations easily emerge, especially under different growing conditions, which can cause great stress to mature plants.

For decades, strains have been bred to bring out their potency, especially in terms of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, the cannabinoid in the plant that delivers psychoactive effects and is largely responsible for its euphoria — but also is a powerful medicine for dozens of diseases. However, researchers and medical professionals have identified something called the entourage effect that supports the concept of whole flower medicine by observing that cannabinoids and terpenes interact synergistically, in a delicate and nuanced supplementation of the human body’s endocannabinoid system.

The good news is that a significant portion of the cannabis breeding community has been focused on creating strains that deliver the greatest medicinal value. Many modern varieties of cannabis are a far cry from the original strains from which they are descended. Just as a modern human living in Kentucky might be a descendant of American founding father Benjamin Franklin while, in most respects, the two humans are very different, cannabis strain crosses often, in reality, feature a morphology (shape and size), growing characteristics, and high type that is very different from their landrace ancestors. Sometimes, crosses and hybrids are more appropriate and therapeutic than landrace strains for particular diseases or ailments.

Understanding Phenotypes and Heirlooms

When seeds from landrace strains are cultivated outside the zone in which they evolved, they produce what geneticists and breeders label phenotypes. Phenotypes are transmogrifications of the plant that result in similar, but different characteristics. This includes morphology, development (such as the length of flowering cycles), and biochemical properties (potency and cannabinoid/terpene profiles). Phenotypes that are direct descendents of landrace strains, with no breeding or crossbreeding, are known as heirlooms.


In landrace strains grown outside their area of origin, a change occurs in the cannabinoid and terpene profiles of the resinous trichomes found on the female flowers of these heirloom varieties. Because they necessarily receive different light cycles, sometimes artificial light instead of natural, and different soil (not to mention dramatic variances in water, humidity, and nutrition), these strains must modify and adapt to their new environments. This changes the inherent characteristics of these strains, including their medical efficacy and high type.

Because they have evolved over hundreds of thousands or even millions of years, landrace strains are considered to be more “balanced,” with terpene and cannabinoid profiles that are in harmony with the needs of the plant, its environment, and — in theory — the humans and animals living in the region that consumed it. (All mammals have an endocannabinoid system and, therefore, are affected by cannabis in a manner similar to humans.)

Origin of American Cultivation Culture

The cannabis cultivation cultures in Northern California and Hawaii have their genesis in heirloom strains introduced to the United States during the 1960s, ’70s, and ’80s. The climate in Northern California sometimes closely approximates that of parts of Afghanistan and the Hindu Kush mountains. Because the central West Coast of the United States is roughly similar in the weather it receives, landrace strains brought back from some regions of Indonesia and the Middle East have traditionally thrived in Northern California. With them, the cannabis culture in the United States has also thrived. Both Hawaii and the entire West Coast have become synonymous with high-quality outdoor grown cannabis — just as Columbia is known for producing some of the world’s best coffee beans.

Patients and lifestyle consumers wishing to expand their cannabis horizons should seek out landrace and heirloom strains in an effort to learn more about the roots of cannabis in not only North America, but throughout the world. Cultivators wanting a change of pace should strive to obtain seeds and clones (cuttings) from heirloom strains in an effort to keep them alive for current and future generations and give patients (and medical professionals, including researchers) additional options for cannabis medicine.


Classic Landrace Strains

In the past, landrace strains that happened to be sativas were eschewed by gardeners for indicas and crosses that featured shorter flowering periods. This was simply because these varieties were more profitable for commercial cultivators. However, the recent wave of recreational and medical cannabis laws at the state level in the U.S. has spawned markets for special strains, many of which are landrace sativas (such as Durban Poison).

Examples of popular and classic landrace strains include the following:

  • Afghan Kush: A pure indica strain purported to have originated in the Hindu Kush Mountains between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
  • G13: A landrace from Afghanistan that typically leans toward indica. However, two phenotypes of this strain exist, the second of which is a sativa.
  • Durban Poison: An unusually potent sativa from the South African port city of Durban. Click here to read an expert review of this strain.
  • Acapulco Gold: The infamous landrace sativa that hails from the Acapulco region of Southwest Mexico and typically features high levels of THC.
  • Northern Lights: A legendary indica, this highly inbred Afghani is purported to hail from British Columbia.
  • Rooibaard: A sativa from the coastal area of the Transkei region of South Africa.
  • Colombian Gold: The fabled cannabis hybrid that is sometimes a bit sativa-dom that originates in the Santa Marta mountains of Colombia in Central America.
  • Hawaiian: A sativa-dom hybrid from the islands of Hawaii.
  • Malawi Gold: A pure sativa is from the Salima region of Malawi in Southeast Africa.
  • Thai: A sativa from, as its name implies, Thailand. Hybrids derived from Thai include Fruity Thai and Juicy Fruit Thai.
  • Panama Red: This sativa from Panama became popular in the late 1960s, during the hippy psychedelic era.
  • Punto Rojo: A sativa from Columbia that is considered by some to be even better than Colombian Gold.
Afghani Strain Review

Afghani Strain Review

For those keeping score at home, I last reviewed Durban Poison from Oasis Cannabis Superstore on W. 44th Ave. in Denver. If you have not read my Durban Poison review, that’s cool I guess. In the review, I mentioned the vast selection of cannabis to be had at Oasis; so it should come as no surprise that when I bought Durban Poison, I also bought a couple other strains from the BevMo!™ of bud. This week, I present to you Afghani grown by Kind Love.

Eponymously named for its originating region, Afghani is widely considered the mother of all landrace strains because cannabis scholars believe Afghani to be the first strain that humans used. Conventional knowledge states that Afghani has always been an indica landrace, but there are those who believe that a sativa Afghani once grew in the region as well. Afghani is a highly resinous strain of cannabis that was historically, and still is, cultivated in the Middle East to produce hashish. Eventually, Afghani found its way to California in the 1970s where it sparked the United States indica invasion. Today, almost all indica and many hybrid strain varieties have Afghani somewhere in their ancestral lineage, such as AK47, Cheese strains, and Skunk strains.

afghani strain review

Kind Love’s Afghani appears to be monochrome, pastel green; upon closer inspection, however, I noticed the occasional spot of light green on the flower as well as dark green attributable to minute leaf remnants from the hand trimming process. The flower also has a steady distribution of moderately sized orange pistils and a solid, dense layer of trichomes. I was pleased to see heavy trichome coverage because resinous flower is a defining characteristic of Afghani, which is why the strain has a history of cultivation for hashish production.

Afghani’s terpene profile is unique, as it initially smells earthy with floral notes, and then exhibits a spicy aroma that fades into a sort of haze-pine scent. Upon smoking the Afghani, I was greeted with a kick to the throat. The flavor and smoke is acrid, harsh, and earthy; not so much that it is unbearable, but noticeably more than the average strain. Normally, such a profile would turn me off to a strain, but these qualities are typical of Afghani’s resinous flower and, thus, happily welcomed. No pain, no gain; am I right?

Immediately after smoking Afghani, I felt wave after wave of a most glorious body high wash over me, particularly in my limbs. What made this body high so glorious? While the Afghani tickled my limbs, it also gently caressed my head, convinced my body to relax, and alleviated my back pain. I felt like the Hindu deity Ganesha was behind me using all six of his arms to make my day; do not ask what his trunk was doing. After about 30 minutes, Afghani tempted me to nap, but the temptation was not so strong that I could not resist. Spoiler alert: I did not resist.

If you enjoy indica strains, body highs, seek pain relief, or are simply looking for a strain to help you sleep at night, Afghani is an excellent choice; and very few cultivators grow it as well as Kind Love. Regardless of your preference, I would recommend all cannabis enthusiasts try Afghani at least once because of its massive influence on today’s cannabis gene pool. Do not let Afghani’s relatively harsh smoke deter you; you will be missing out.

Purple Afghani Review

Purple Afghani Review

The veritable cornucopia of cannabis strain names that exist in today’s legal market often convolutes a strain’s genealogy. Purple Afghani is one such strain. Upon first glance, one may reasonably believe that Purple Afghani is Afghani crossed with some Purple strain, like Purple Kush or Grand Daddy Purple. There is, however, a lesser-known strain called Purple Afghani that is actually an Afghani landrace.

Afghanistan is part of a Central Asian region that is the origin of Afghani, a cannabis strain widely considered to be one of, if not the, oldest strains in existence. Different areas of Afghanistan have fostered Afghani strain variants, so there is not one single cannabis landrace known as Afghani; but all true Afghani landraces are pure indicas.

purple afghani

According to Michael Backes’ Cannabis Pharmacy: The Practical Guide to Medical Marijuana, of the three Afghani landraces, Afghani #2 has a purple variant. Backes describes the flower from the Afghani landrace as smelling of spice, skunk, and coffee and having a harsh, hashy smoke that is floral, spicy, and tart. People who smoke or vaporize Afghani can expect effects common to indica strains, such as a strong body high, relaxation, and even lethargy.

I recently had the pleasure of enjoying flower from a Purple Afghani landrace. The Purple Afghani I had did smell of spice, skunk, and (subtly) coffee, but I also detected licorice, berries, and earthy tones, which made me question whether it truly was a pure landrace. I found the strain to indeed be a very harsh smoke, even as an experienced user, and the flower’s flavor most closely resembled acidic coffee and spice. Although I found the flavor unpleasant, the effect was quite the opposite. I felt pleasant physical sensations all over my head and body and extremely relaxed; and I noticed my back pain had subsided as well. Not surprisingly, I became drowsy about forty-five minutes after I smoked the Purple Afghani.

I would recommend Purple Afghani to anyone interested in a pure indica, suffering from a sleep disorder like insomnia, or seeking pain relief. So long as you can handle the harsh smoke, Purple Afghani delivers everything expected of an indica.


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